12th Alabama InfantryOrganized: Richmond, VA; mustered in 7/1861
Disbanded/Mustered out: Appomattox CH, VA April 1865
Col. B. B. Gayle
LCol. S. B. Pickens
Capt. E. Tucker
Capt. W. L. Maroney
|Statistics for Maryland Campaign|
Initial Strength: not known
Killed in Action (KIA): 27
Wounded (WIA): 69
Missing in Action (MIA): 33
Maps Showing this Unit:
Detail Map #6: French's Division Hits the Sunken Road
Detail Map #7: Richardson's Division Attacks the Sunken Road
Battlefield Tablets for this Unit:
Tablet #384: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 14 Sep, 10 PM to 16 Sep, 9 PM
Tablet #332: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 14 Sep, 10 PM to 16 Sep, 9 PM
Tablet #303: Longstreet's Command - 14 Sep, 9 PM to 15 Sep, 12 PM
Tablet #338: Rodes' Brigade, D. H. Hill's Division - 16 Sep, 9 PM to 17 Sep, 1 PM
Tablet #333: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 17 Sep, 7 AM to 17 Sep, 1 PM
Tablet #304: Longstreet's Command - 17 Sep, 7 AM to 17 Sep, 3 PM
Tablet #385: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 17 Sep, 7 AM to 17 Sep, 5 PM
This Regiment's Chain of Command:
Army - Army of Northern Virginia
Corps - Jackson's Command
Division - D. H. Hill's Division
Brigade - Rodes' Brigade
History of the Unit:
The Twelfth Alabama was organized at Richmond in July 1861, and at once moved to the Potomac "front." It was first brigaded under Gen. Ewell of Virginia, who was soon after succeeded by Gen. Rodes of Tuskaloosa. The regiment lay near Manassas during the fall and winter, and moved to Yorktown in the spring of 1862. It was under fire there, and suffered lightly at Williamsburg. At Seven Pines the regiment was in the advance that opened the battle, and stormed the redoubt held by Casey's division, carrying three lines of works by succesive charges, and losing 70 killed and 141 wounded - more than half it had engaged. It participated to some extent in the other battles before Richmond, and mustered 120 men for duty after the battle of Malvern Hill.
Still under Rodes, and in D. H. Hill's division, and brigaded with the Third, Fifth, Sixth, and Twenty-sixth Alabama regiments, the Twelfth was in the advance into Maryland. It bore a conspicuous part at Boonsboro, and also at Sharpsburg, losing in these bloody conflicts 27 killed, 69 wounded, and 33 missing out its thinned ranks.
Retiring into Virginia with the army, the regiment wintered on the Rappahannock. It was under fire but not actively engaged at Fredericksburg; but it was in the resistless column of Rodes at Chancellorsville, where Col. O'Neal led the brigade, and where the Twelfth charged three lines of breastworks, and was badly mutilated. It skirmished at Brandy Station, and again led the way over the Potomac. At Gettysburg it was on the extreme left, and pressed the enemy in confusion through the town, then supported the grand assault, and afterwards covered the rear.
After the army retired into Virginia, the Twelfth was engaged in several skirmishes - at Warrenton Springs, Turkey Run &c. The winter was passed near Orange C.H., and the regiment - Gen. Battle now commanding the brigade - was hotly engaged at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, and in the continuous skirmishing of Grant's advance movement to Cold Harbor.
The Twelfth then again marched into Maryland when Early threatened Washington. It participated at Winchester with very severe loss, and in the further operations of the corps in the Valley. On its return to Petersburg it took part - now in the Gordon's corps - in the fierce struggles around that historic city, and laid down its arms at Appomattox.
Of the original number of 1196, about 50 were at Appomattox; and of the 321 recruits received, about 70 were there. Nearly 250 died of wounds received in battle, about 200 died of disease, and 202 were discharged.
In the Antietam Campaign:
Col B.B. Gayle was killed, and LCol S. B. Pickens was wounded, at "Boonsboro" (Turner's Gap) on the 14th while the Regiment was part of the late afternoon defense of that South Mountain pass against elements of Federal General Hooker's First Corps.
Capt Tucker was killed at Sharpsburg while in command of what remained of the 12th. The Regiment was among those of DH Hill's Division in the furious midday combat in the sunken road.
For furhter details of the 12th in action, see their Brigade Commander BGen Rodes' Official Report.
More on the Web:
See the Basic History from the Alabama State Archives.
References, Sources, and other Notes:
for more: Park, Robert Emory. Sketch of the Twelfth Alabama Infantry of Battle's Brigade, Rodes Division, Early's Corps, of the Army of Northern Virginia . (Richmond : William Ellis Jones, printer, 1906 [reprinted, Clearwater, SC : Eastern Digital Resources, 1998])
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