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Confederate Regiment

12th Alabama Infantry

Organized: Richmond, VA; mustered in 7/1861
Disbanded/Mustered out: Appomattox CH, VA April 1865


Commanding Officers at Sharpsburg:
  Col. B. B. Gayle
  LCol. S. B. Pickens
  Capt. E. Tucker
  Capt. W. L. Maroney


This Regiment's Chain of Command:
  Army - Army of Northern Virginia
  Corps - Jackson's Command
  Division - D. H. Hill's Division
  Brigade - Rodes' Brigade

Unit history

The Twelfth Alabama was organized at Richmond in July 1861, and at once moved to the Potomac "front." It was first brigaded under Gen. Ewell of Virginia, who was soon after succeeded by Gen. Rodes of Tuskaloosa. The regiment lay near Manassas during the fall and winter, and moved to Yorktown in the spring of 1862. It was under fire there, and suffered lightly at Williamsburg. At Seven Pines the regiment was in the advance that opened the battle, and stormed the redoubt held by Casey's division, carrying three lines of works by succesive charges, and losing 70 killed and 141 wounded - more than half it had engaged. It participated to some extent in the other battles before Richmond, and mustered 120 men for duty after the battle of Malvern Hill.

Still under Rodes, and in D. H. Hill's division, and brigaded with the Third, Fifth, Sixth, and Twenty-sixth Alabama regiments, the Twelfth was in the advance into Maryland. It bore a conspicuous part at Boonsboro, and also at Sharpsburg, losing in these bloody conflicts 27 killed, 69 wounded, and 33 missing out its thinned ranks.

Retiring into Virginia with the army, the regiment wintered on the Rappahannock. It was under fire but not actively engaged at Fredericksburg; but it was in the resistless column of Rodes at Chancellorsville, where Col. O'Neal led the brigade, and where the Twelfth charged three lines of breastworks, and was badly mutilated. It skirmished at Brandy Station, and again led the way over the Potomac. At Gettysburg it was on the extreme left, and pressed the enemy in confusion through the town, then supported the grand assault, and afterwards covered the rear.

After the army retired into Virginia, the Twelfth was engaged in several skirmishes - at Warrenton Springs, Turkey Run &c. The winter was passed near Orange C.H., and the regiment - Gen. Battle now commanding the brigade - was hotly engaged at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, and in the continuous skirmishing of Grant's advance movement to Cold Harbor.

The Twelfth then again marched into Maryland when Early threatened Washington. It participated at Winchester with very severe loss, and in the further operations of the corps in the Valley. On its return to Petersburg it took part - now in the Gordon's corps - in the fierce struggles around that historic city, and laid down its arms at Appomattox.

Of the original number of 1196, about 50 were at Appomattox; and of the 321 recruits received, about 70 were there. Nearly 250 died of wounds received in battle, about 200 died of disease, and 202 were discharged.

On the Sharpsburg Campaign

Col B.B. Gayle was killed, and LCol S. B. Pickens was wounded, at "Boonsboro" (Turner's Gap) on the 14th while the Regiment was part of the late afternoon defense of that South Mountain pass against elements of Federal General Hooker's First Corps.

Capt Tucker was killed at Sharpsburg while in command of what remained of the 12th. The Regiment was among those of DH Hill's Division in the furious midday combat in the sunken road.

For furhter details of the 12th in action, see their Brigade Commander BGen Rodes' Official Report.


Initial Strength: not known; Killed in Action (KIA): 27; Wounded (WIA): 69; Missing in Action (MIA): 33;

Maps Showing this Unit

Battlefield Tablets for this Unit

Tablet #384: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 14 Sep, 10 PM to 16 Sep, 9 PM
Tablet #332: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 14 Sep, 10 PM to 16 Sep, 9 PM
Tablet #303: Longstreet's Command - 14 Sep, 9 PM to 15 Sep, 12 PM
Tablet #338: Rodes' Brigade, D. H. Hill's Division - 16 Sep, 9 PM to 17 Sep, 1 PM
Tablet #333: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 17 Sep, 7 AM to 17 Sep, 1 PM
Tablet #304: Longstreet's Command - 17 Sep, 7 AM to 17 Sep, 3 PM
Tablet #385: D. H. Hill's Division, Jackson's Command - 17 Sep, 7 AM to 17 Sep, 5 PM

More on the Web

See the Basic History from the Alabama State Archives.

References & Notes

for more: Park, Robert Emory. Sketch of the Twelfth Alabama Infantry of Battle's Brigade, Rodes Division, Early's Corps, of the Army of Northern Virginia . (Richmond : William Ellis Jones, printer, 1906 [reprinted, Clearwater, SC : Eastern Digital Resources, 1998])

We have 14 individuals in the AotW database for this unit:


Co. Rank Name Casualty? Details*
CPvtHogan, James Died   10/03
DCaptTucker, Exton KIA   09/17     We have some details for this person
ECaptMaroney, William L        We have some details for this person
EPvtMichaelds, John Died   00/00     We have some details for this person
EPvtNikles, John A.Died   10/03
EPvtPotter, Alexander Died   09/25     We have some details for this person
GPvtHesterly, R. Y.Died   10/11     We have some details for this person
HSgtRaper, Alexander Died   10/27     We have some details for this person
IPvtFitske, J. R.Died   10/19     We have some details for this person
IPvtWeaver, J. W.Died   00/00     We have some details for this person
KPvtNewhall, W. J.Died   00/00
KPvtRowell, H. H.Died   00/00     We have some details for this person
F&SColGayle, Bristor BrownKIA   09/14     We have some details for this person
F&SLColPickens, Samuel BonneauWIA   09/14     We have a picture for this person We have some details for this person


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